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The correct means to make use of citation marks in AP type

How to use quotes in AP style

Citation marks appear simple. If you happen to’re recounting precisely what another person stated, it needs to be in citation marks. Straightforward, proper?

That half is straightforward sufficient. However the place does the punctuation mark go in a quote? What if it’s a quote inside a quote? Do you ever use single quotes? What if it’s an unfamiliar phrase? Are there exceptions?

There are quite a lot of guidelines for citation marks in AP type, however general, they’re enforced constantly. If you happen to can keep in mind just a few guidelines of thumb, you’ll be a citation professional very quickly.

How you can quote folks

Double citation marks – “that’s these guys” – go round phrases which are being reproduced precisely as they have been spoken or written. Every speaker will get their very own set of citation marks.

Most punctuation goes inside the citation marks if it applies to the quote. For instance:

  • “What time is the parade?”
  • “The parade is quickly!”
  • “I don’t like parades.”
  • “You’re no enjoyable,” he stated.

Nonetheless, when you’ve got a punctuation mark that applies to the broader sentence and never the quote particularly, it goes exterior the marks, like so: Did he say, “I don’t love you”? On this instance, “I don’t love you” is an announcement, not a query, so the query mark goes exterior the citation to point out that all the sentence is interrogatory.

If a single quote spans greater than a paragraph, don’t use citation marks on the finish of the primary paragraph, however do add them to the second paragraph:

“4 rating and 7 years in the past our fathers introduced forth on this continent, a brand new nation, conceived in Liberty, and devoted to the proposition that each one males are created equal.

“Now we’re engaged in an important civil struggle, testing whether or not that nation, or any nation so conceived and so devoted, can lengthy endure,” Abraham Lincoln stated within the Gettysburg Deal with.

Nonetheless, should you’re quoting a really lengthy passage like an excerpt or a whole work, no citation marks are essential if it’s set off as a block quote.

When to make use of single citation marks

The citation mark’s skinnier sister, the only quote, is extra generally generally known as the apostrophe (‘these guys’). It isn’t used fairly often in AP type, however there are some instances when utilizing it’s essential.

Single citation marks needs to be used for quotes in headlines as a space-saving measure.

If you happen to’re quoting somebody who’s quoting somebody, switching to single quotes for the secondary quote avoids confusion: “As a sensible man as soon as stated, ‘ain’t {that a} kick within the head?’” You’ll additionally use the only quote when quoting somebody who’s utilizing a composition title:  “I’m watching ‘The Nice Pottery Throwdown,’” she stated.

When you’ve got a quote inside a quote inside a quote, maintain alternating between double and single quotes.

Composition titles

It’s possible you’ll be tempted to place books, motion pictures, TV exhibits and different media names in italics. That is doubtless a holdover behavior of utilizing APA or Chicago Fashion on college papers. Nonetheless, AP type very hardly ever makes use of italics, as old-style wire machines couldn’t course of them. Whilst you’re typically advantageous utilizing italics for emphasis, citation marks are nonetheless the right selection for titles of most artworks, together with books, motion pictures, pc video games, operas, performs, poems, radio, TV and podcast applications, speeches and visible artwork.

Exceptions embody holy books such because the Bible or Quran, reference books like dictionaries or encyclopedias, and, weirdly, software program titles like Microsoft Workplace.

Different instances to make use of citation marks

Some folks love sprinkling in citation marks for emphasis, or in enterprise writing, typically to focus on a phrase that appears informal. You don’t want to do that. There are just a few different instances to make use of citation marks:

  • Nicknames: When introducing somebody by each a correct identify and a nickname, put the nickname in quotes: Jake “The Snake” Smith. You don’t want to make use of quotes if it’s a typical shortening of a reputation, like Jake as an alternative of Jacob. Simply use the identify they like to be referred to as.
  • Overseas or unfamiliar phrases: Some overseas phrases have develop into so built-in into the English lexicon that we don’t even consider them as overseas: tsunami, bon appetit. However when a phrase is unfamiliar to a normal viewers of English audio system, you might use citation marks to establish the phrase earlier than defining it: “pamplemousse,” the French phrase for “grapefruit…” You might also contemplate doing the identical with slang or technical phrases that your viewers won’t be conversant in. Nonetheless, some are urging a transfer away from calling consideration to overseas phrases by framing them in quotes.
  • Irony: Identical to air quotes in actual life, you’re advantageous with utilizing citation marks for sarcasm: “Did you will have enjoyable on the get together?” “’Celebration.’ Extra like a wake.”

As you’re working in your communications technique, keep in mind you can tweak AP type to satisfy your wants. So long as your type stays constituent sufficient to proceed reaching your meant viewers, you’re simply advantageous.


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